pacman: implement universal transactions

Message ID 20220221211551.1250827-1-morganamilo@archlinux.org
State New
Headers show
Series pacman: implement universal transactions | expand

Commit Message

morganamilo Feb. 21, 2022, 9:15 p.m. UTC
This allows using -S, -U and -R in one command:

    pacman -S foo -R bar

To make this work some breaking changes have made.

Targets have to come after the operation:

    pacman -S foo  //works
    pacman -Syu    //works
    pacman -yuS    //works
    pacman foo -S  //doesn't work

This could be supported with some code to copy all targets before the
first operation into the first operation's target list.

And -u as a short for --unneeded has been removed as it conflicts with
--sysupgrade. However as -u/--sysupgrade is bound to -S, accidently
doing `pacman -Ru` will not accidently cause a system upgrade.

Another quirk with the UI is that -S has many non transaction related
flags, -Sc -Sg -Sl -Si. These have been split off as "sync only" flags.
Meaning they show up with `pacman -Si foo` but will be invalid on
`pacman -R bar -Si foo`.

Also when -R'ing and -S'ing the same package in some command it's
treated as a full uninstall then reinstall. The backup files are
.pacsave'd and the install reason is set to explicit. I feel like this
behavious is good. This also allows you to wipe config files which what
--nokeep was intending to solve.

Other flags just have to have the op they belong to to be used for them
to be valid.

For example:

    pacman -Rn foo //works
    pacman -S -Rn //works
    pacman -Sn    //doesn't work
    pacman -Sn -R //works

We could posibly drop these flags belonging to each operation and just
make them generic transaction flags.

Implements FS#9694

Signed-off-by: morganamilo <morganamilo@archlinux.org>
---
 src/pacman/conf.c              |  10 +-
 src/pacman/conf.h              |  29 +-
 src/pacman/meson.build         |   1 +
 src/pacman/pacman.c            | 467 +++++++++++++++++++-------------
 src/pacman/pacman.h            |  12 +-
 src/pacman/remove.c            |  99 +------
 src/pacman/sync.c              | 403 +--------------------------
 src/pacman/trans.c             | 478 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 src/pacman/upgrade.c           |  26 +-
 src/pacman/util.c              |  15 +-
 test/pacman/tests/remove049.py |   4 +-
 11 files changed, 814 insertions(+), 730 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 src/pacman/trans.c

Patch

diff --git a/src/pacman/conf.c b/src/pacman/conf.c
index f9edf75b..9a98264c 100644
--- a/src/pacman/conf.c
+++ b/src/pacman/conf.c
@@ -105,7 +105,8 @@  config_t *config_new(void)
 		return NULL;
 	}
 	/* defaults which may get overridden later */
-	newconfig->op = PM_OP_MAIN;
+	newconfig->op = 0;
+	newconfig->curr_op = 0;
 	newconfig->logmask = ALPM_LOG_ERROR | ALPM_LOG_WARNING;
 	newconfig->configfile = strdup(CONFFILE);
 	if(alpm_capabilities() & ALPM_CAPABILITY_SIGNATURES) {
@@ -131,6 +132,13 @@  config_t *config_new(void)
 	return newconfig;
 }
 
+void targets_free(targets_t *targets) {
+	FREELIST(targets->targets);
+	FREELIST(targets->sync);
+	FREELIST(targets->upgrade);
+	FREELIST(targets->remove);
+}
+
 int config_free(config_t *oldconfig)
 {
 	if(oldconfig == NULL) {
diff --git a/src/pacman/conf.h b/src/pacman/conf.h
index f7916ca9..93813ef4 100644
--- a/src/pacman/conf.h
+++ b/src/pacman/conf.h
@@ -43,8 +43,17 @@  typedef struct __config_repo_t {
 	int siglevel_mask;
 } config_repo_t;
 
+
+typedef struct __targets_t {
+	alpm_list_t *targets;
+	alpm_list_t *sync;
+	alpm_list_t *upgrade;
+	alpm_list_t *remove;
+} targets_t;
+
 typedef struct __config_t {
 	unsigned short op;
+	unsigned short curr_op;
 	unsigned short quiet;
 	unsigned short verbose;
 	unsigned short version;
@@ -142,14 +151,15 @@  typedef struct __config_t {
 
 /* Operations */
 enum {
-	PM_OP_MAIN = 1,
-	PM_OP_REMOVE,
-	PM_OP_UPGRADE,
-	PM_OP_QUERY,
-	PM_OP_SYNC,
-	PM_OP_DEPTEST,
-	PM_OP_DATABASE,
-	PM_OP_FILES
+	PM_OP_INVALID = 1 << 0,
+	PM_OP_REMOVE = 1 << 1,
+	PM_OP_UPGRADE = 1 << 2,
+	PM_OP_QUERY = 1 << 3,
+	PM_OP_SYNC = 1 << 4,
+	PM_OP_DEPTEST = 1 << 5,
+	PM_OP_DATABASE = 1 << 6,
+	PM_OP_FILES = 1 << 7,
+	PM_OP_TRANS = PM_OP_SYNC | PM_OP_UPGRADE | PM_OP_REMOVE
 };
 
 /* Long Operations */
@@ -235,6 +245,9 @@  enum {
 /* global config variable */
 extern config_t *config;
 
+
+void targets_free(targets_t *targets);
+
 void enable_colors(int colors);
 config_t *config_new(void);
 int config_free(config_t *oldconfig);
diff --git a/src/pacman/meson.build b/src/pacman/meson.build
index 6926f676..6bf31495 100644
--- a/src/pacman/meson.build
+++ b/src/pacman/meson.build
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@  pacman_sources = files('''
   remove.c
   sighandler.h sighandler.c
   sync.c
+  trans.c
   callback.h callback.c
   upgrade.c
   util.h util.c
diff --git a/src/pacman/pacman.c b/src/pacman/pacman.c
index ea536a47..829747c2 100644
--- a/src/pacman/pacman.c
+++ b/src/pacman/pacman.c
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ 
 #include "sighandler.h"
 
 /* list of targets specified on command line */
-static alpm_list_t *pm_targets;
+static targets_t pm_targets;
 
 /* Used to sort the options in --help */
 static int options_cmp(const void *p1, const void *p2)
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@  static void usage(int op, const char * const myname)
 	char const *const str_opr  = _("operation");
 
 	/* please limit your strings to 80 characters in width */
-	if(op == PM_OP_MAIN) {
+	if(!op) {
 		printf("%s:  %s <%s> [...]\n", str_usg, myname, str_opr);
 		printf(_("operations:\n"));
 		printf("    %s {-h --help}\n", myname);
@@ -125,11 +125,10 @@  static void usage(int op, const char * const myname)
 			addlist(_("  -c, --cascade        remove packages and all packages that depend on them\n"));
 			addlist(_("  -n, --nosave         remove configuration files\n"));
 			addlist(_("  -s, --recursive      remove unnecessary dependencies\n"
-			          "                       (-ss includes explicitly installed dependencies)\n"));
-			addlist(_("  -u, --unneeded       remove unneeded packages\n"));
+				  "                       (-ss includes explicitly installed dependencies)\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --unneeded       remove unneeded packages\n"));
 		} else if(op == PM_OP_UPGRADE) {
 			printf("%s:  %s {-U --upgrade} [%s] <%s>\n", str_usg, myname, str_opt, str_file);
-			addlist(_("      --needed         do not reinstall up to date packages\n"));
 			printf("%s:\n", str_opt);
 		} else if(op == PM_OP_QUERY) {
 			printf("%s:  %s {-Q --query} [%s] [%s]\n", str_usg, myname, str_opt, str_pkg);
@@ -163,7 +162,6 @@  static void usage(int op, const char * const myname)
 			addlist(_("  -u, --sysupgrade     upgrade installed packages (-uu enables downgrades)\n"));
 			addlist(_("  -y, --refresh        download fresh package databases from the server\n"
 			          "                       (-yy to force a refresh even if up to date)\n"));
-			addlist(_("      --needed         do not reinstall up to date packages\n"));
 		} else if(op == PM_OP_DATABASE) {
 			printf("%s:  %s {-D --database} <%s> <%s>\n", str_usg, myname, str_opt, str_pkg);
 			printf("%s:\n", str_opt);
@@ -185,29 +183,27 @@  static void usage(int op, const char * const myname)
 			addlist(_("      --machinereadable\n"
 			          "                       produce machine-readable output\n"));
 		}
-		switch(op) {
-			case PM_OP_SYNC:
-			case PM_OP_UPGRADE:
-				addlist(_("  -w, --downloadonly   download packages but do not install/upgrade anything\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --overwrite <glob>\n"
-				          "                       overwrite conflicting files (can be used more than once)\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --asdeps         install packages as non-explicitly installed\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --asexplicit     install packages as explicitly installed\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --ignore <pkg>   ignore a package upgrade (can be used more than once)\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --ignoregroup <grp>\n"
-				          "                       ignore a group upgrade (can be used more than once)\n"));
-				__attribute__((fallthrough));
-			case PM_OP_REMOVE:
-				addlist(_("  -d, --nodeps         skip dependency version checks (-dd to skip all checks)\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --assume-installed <package=version>\n"
-				          "                       add a virtual package to satisfy dependencies\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --dbonly         only modify database entries, not package files\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --noprogressbar  do not show a progress bar when downloading files\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --noscriptlet    do not execute the install scriptlet if one exists\n"));
-				addlist(_("  -p, --print          print the targets instead of performing the operation\n"));
-				addlist(_("      --print-format <string>\n"
-				          "                       specify how the targets should be printed\n"));
-				break;
+		if(op & (PM_OP_UPGRADE | PM_OP_SYNC)) {
+			addlist(_("      --needed         do not reinstall up to date packages\n"));
+			addlist(_("  -w, --downloadonly   download packages but do not install/upgrade anything\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --overwrite <glob>\n"
+				  "                       overwrite conflicting files (can be used more than once)\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --asdeps         install packages as non-explicitly installed\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --asexplicit     install packages as explicitly installed\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --ignore <pkg>   ignore a package upgrade (can be used more than once)\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --ignoregroup <grp>\n"
+				  "                       ignore a group upgrade (can be used more than once)\n"));
+		}
+		if(op & PM_OP_TRANS) {
+			addlist(_("  -d, --nodeps         skip dependency version checks (-dd to skip all checks)\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --assume-installed <package=version>\n"
+				  "                       add a virtual package to satisfy dependencies\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --dbonly         only modify database entries, not package files\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --noprogressbar  do not show a progress bar when downloading files\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --noscriptlet    do not execute the install scriptlet if one exists\n"));
+			addlist(_("  -p, --print          print the targets instead of performing the operation\n"));
+			addlist(_("      --print-format <string>\n"
+				  "                       specify how the targets should be printed\n"));
 		}
 
 		addlist(_("  -b, --dbpath <path>  set an alternate database location\n"));
@@ -301,7 +297,7 @@  static void cleanup(int ret)
 	}
 
 	/* free memory */
-	FREELIST(pm_targets);
+	targets_free(&pm_targets);
 	console_cursor_show();
 	exit(ret);
 }
@@ -327,6 +323,24 @@  static int parsearg_util_addlist(alpm_list_t **list)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void set_op(int opt)
+{
+	int trans = (config->op & PM_OP_TRANS) != 0;
+	int setting_trans = (opt & PM_OP_TRANS) != 0;
+
+	/* we allow -SS so allow -QQ for sake of consistency */
+	if(config->op == opt) {
+		return;
+	}
+
+	if(!config->op || (trans && setting_trans)) {
+		config->op |= opt;
+		config->curr_op = opt;
+	} else {
+		config->op |= PM_OP_INVALID;
+	}
+}
+
 /** Helper function for parsing operation from command-line arguments.
  * @param opt Keycode returned by getopt_long
  * @param dryrun If nonzero, application state is NOT changed
@@ -338,25 +352,25 @@  static int parsearg_op(int opt, int dryrun)
 		/* operations */
 		case 'D':
 			if(dryrun) break;
-			config->op = (config->op != PM_OP_MAIN ? 0 : PM_OP_DATABASE); break;
+			set_op(PM_OP_DATABASE); break;
 		case 'F':
 			if(dryrun) break;
-			config->op = (config->op != PM_OP_MAIN ? 0 : PM_OP_FILES); break;
+			set_op(PM_OP_FILES); break;
 		case 'Q':
 			if(dryrun) break;
-			config->op = (config->op != PM_OP_MAIN ? 0 : PM_OP_QUERY); break;
+			set_op(PM_OP_QUERY); break;
 		case 'R':
 			if(dryrun) break;
-			config->op = (config->op != PM_OP_MAIN ? 0 : PM_OP_REMOVE); break;
+			set_op(PM_OP_REMOVE); break;
 		case 'S':
 			if(dryrun) break;
-			config->op = (config->op != PM_OP_MAIN ? 0 : PM_OP_SYNC); break;
+			set_op(PM_OP_SYNC); break;
 		case 'T':
 			if(dryrun) break;
-			config->op = (config->op != PM_OP_MAIN ? 0 : PM_OP_DEPTEST); break;
+			set_op(PM_OP_DEPTEST); break;
 		case 'U':
 			if(dryrun) break;
-			config->op = (config->op != PM_OP_MAIN ? 0 : PM_OP_UPGRADE); break;
+			set_op(PM_OP_UPGRADE); break;
 		case 'V':
 			if(dryrun) break;
 			config->version = 1; break;
@@ -369,6 +383,7 @@  static int parsearg_op(int opt, int dryrun)
 	return 0;
 }
 
+
 /** Helper functions for parsing command-line arguments.
  * @param opt Keycode returned by getopt_long
  * @return 0 on success, 1 on failure
@@ -619,62 +634,8 @@  static void checkargs_query(void)
 			"--native", "--foreign");
 }
 
-/* options common to -S -R -U */
-static int parsearg_trans(int opt)
-{
-	switch(opt) {
-		case OP_NODEPS:
-		case 'd':
-			if(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NODEPVERSION) {
-				config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NODEPS;
-			} else {
-				config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NODEPVERSION;
-			}
-			break;
-		case OP_DBONLY:
-			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_DBONLY;
-			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOSCRIPTLET;
-			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOHOOKS;
-			break;
-		case OP_NOPROGRESSBAR:
-			config->noprogressbar = 1;
-			break;
-		case OP_NOSCRIPTLET:
-			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOSCRIPTLET;
-			break;
-		case OP_PRINT:
-		case 'p':
-			config->print = 1;
-			break;
-		case OP_PRINTFORMAT:
-			config->print = 1;
-			free(config->print_format);
-			config->print_format = strdup(optarg);
-			break;
-		case OP_ASSUMEINSTALLED:
-			parsearg_util_addlist(&(config->assumeinstalled));
-			break;
-		default:
-			return 1;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static void checkargs_trans(void)
-{
-	if(config->print) {
-		invalid_opt(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_DBONLY,
-				"--print", "--dbonly");
-		invalid_opt(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOSCRIPTLET,
-				"--print", "--noscriptlet");
-	}
-}
-
 static int parsearg_remove(int opt)
 {
-	if(parsearg_trans(opt) == 0) {
-		return 0;
-	}
 	switch(opt) {
 		case OP_CASCADE:
 		case 'c':
@@ -693,7 +654,6 @@  static int parsearg_remove(int opt)
 			}
 			break;
 		case OP_UNNEEDED:
-		case 'u':
 			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_UNNEEDED;
 			break;
 		default:
@@ -704,7 +664,6 @@  static int parsearg_remove(int opt)
 
 static void checkargs_remove(void)
 {
-	checkargs_trans();
 	if(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOSAVE) {
 		invalid_opt(config->print, "--nosave", "--print");
 		invalid_opt(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_DBONLY,
@@ -715,9 +674,6 @@  static void checkargs_remove(void)
 /* options common to -S -U */
 static int parsearg_upgrade(int opt)
 {
-	if(parsearg_trans(opt) == 0) {
-		return 0;
-	}
 	switch(opt) {
 		case OP_OVERWRITE_FILES:
 			parsearg_util_addlist(&(config->overwrite_files));
@@ -750,7 +706,6 @@  static int parsearg_upgrade(int opt)
 
 static void checkargs_upgrade(void)
 {
-	checkargs_trans();
 	invalid_opt(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_ALLDEPS
 			&& config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_ALLEXPLICIT,
 			"--asdeps", "--asexplicit");
@@ -758,9 +713,6 @@  static void checkargs_upgrade(void)
 
 static int parsearg_files(int opt)
 {
-	if(parsearg_trans(opt) == 0) {
-		return 0;
-	}
 	switch(opt) {
 		case OP_LIST:
 		case 'l':
@@ -799,6 +751,26 @@  static int parsearg_sync(int opt)
 	if(parsearg_upgrade(opt) == 0) {
 		return 0;
 	}
+	switch(opt) {
+		case OP_SYSUPGRADE:
+		case 'u':
+			(config->op_s_upgrade)++;
+			break;
+		case OP_REFRESH:
+		case 'y':
+			(config->op_s_sync)++;
+			break;
+		default:
+			return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int parsearg_sync_only(int opt)
+{
+	if(parsearg_sync(opt) == 0) {
+		return 0;
+	}
 	switch(opt) {
 		case OP_CLEAN:
 		case 'c':
@@ -840,7 +812,12 @@  static int parsearg_sync(int opt)
 
 static void checkargs_sync(void)
 {
-	checkargs_upgrade();
+	/* no conflicts currently */
+}
+
+static void checkargs_sync_only(void)
+{
+	checkargs_sync();
 	if(config->op_s_clean) {
 		invalid_opt(config->group, "--clean", "--groups");
 		invalid_opt(config->op_s_info, "--clean", "--info");
@@ -870,6 +847,89 @@  static void checkargs_sync(void)
 	}
 }
 
+/* options common to -S -R -U */
+static int parsearg_trans(int opt)
+{
+	if(config->op & (PM_OP_SYNC | PM_OP_UPGRADE) && parsearg_upgrade(opt) == 0) {
+		return 0;
+	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_SYNC && parsearg_sync(opt) == 0) {
+		return 0;
+	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_REMOVE && parsearg_remove(opt) == 0) {
+		return 0;
+	}
+	switch(opt) {
+		case OP_NODEPS:
+		case 'd':
+			if(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NODEPVERSION) {
+				config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NODEPS;
+			} else {
+				config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NODEPVERSION;
+			}
+			break;
+		case OP_DBONLY:
+			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_DBONLY;
+			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOSCRIPTLET;
+			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOHOOKS;
+			break;
+		case OP_NOPROGRESSBAR:
+			config->noprogressbar = 1;
+			break;
+		case OP_NOSCRIPTLET:
+			config->flags |= ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOSCRIPTLET;
+			break;
+		case OP_PRINT:
+		case 'p':
+			config->print = 1;
+			break;
+		case OP_PRINTFORMAT:
+			config->print = 1;
+			free(config->print_format);
+			config->print_format = strdup(optarg);
+			break;
+		case OP_ASSUMEINSTALLED:
+			parsearg_util_addlist(&(config->assumeinstalled));
+			break;
+		default:
+			return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void checkargs_trans(void)
+{
+	if(config->op & (PM_OP_SYNC | PM_OP_UPGRADE)) {
+		checkargs_upgrade();
+	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_SYNC) {
+		checkargs_sync();
+	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_REMOVE) {
+		checkargs_remove();
+	}
+
+	if(config->print) {
+		invalid_opt(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_DBONLY,
+				"--print", "--dbonly");
+		invalid_opt(config->flags & ALPM_TRANS_FLAG_NOSCRIPTLET,
+				"--print", "--noscriptlet");
+	}
+}
+
+static void add_target(char *targ)
+{
+	if(config->curr_op & PM_OP_SYNC) {
+		pm_targets.sync = alpm_list_add(pm_targets.sync, targ);
+	} else if(config->curr_op & PM_OP_REMOVE) {
+		pm_targets.remove = alpm_list_add(pm_targets.remove, targ);
+	} else if(config->curr_op & PM_OP_UPGRADE) {
+		pm_targets.upgrade = alpm_list_add(pm_targets.upgrade, targ);
+	} else {
+		pm_targets.targets = alpm_list_add(pm_targets.targets, targ);
+	}
+}
+
 /** Parse command-line arguments for each operation.
  * @param argc argc
  * @param argv argv
@@ -880,7 +940,7 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 	int opt;
 	int option_index = 0;
 	int result;
-	const char *optstring = "DFQRSTUVb:cdefghiklmnopqr:stuvwxy";
+	const char *optstring = "-DFQRSTUVb:cdefghiklmnopqr:stuvwxy";
 	static const struct option opts[] =
 	{
 		{"database",   no_argument,       0, 'D'},
@@ -955,6 +1015,11 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 	while((opt = getopt_long(argc, argv, optstring, opts, &option_index)) != -1) {
 		if(opt == 0) {
 			continue;
+		} else if(opt == 1) {
+			char *targ = strdup(optarg);
+			/* add the target to our target array */
+			add_target(targ);
+			continue;
 		} else if(opt == '?') {
 			/* unknown option, getopt printed an error */
 			return 1;
@@ -962,8 +1027,8 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 		parsearg_op(opt, 0);
 	}
 
-	if(config->op == 0) {
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("only one operation may be used at a time\n"));
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_INVALID) {
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("these operations can not be used together\n"));
 		return 1;
 	}
 	if(config->help) {
@@ -978,7 +1043,7 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 	/* parse all other options */
 	optind = 1;
 	while((opt = getopt_long(argc, argv, optstring, opts, &option_index)) != -1) {
-		if(opt == 0) {
+		if(opt == 0 || opt == 1) {
 			continue;
 		} else if(opt == '?') {
 			/* this should have failed during first pass already */
@@ -995,14 +1060,9 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 			case PM_OP_QUERY:
 				result = parsearg_query(opt);
 				break;
-			case PM_OP_REMOVE:
-				result = parsearg_remove(opt);
-				break;
 			case PM_OP_SYNC:
-				result = parsearg_sync(opt);
-				break;
-			case PM_OP_UPGRADE:
-				result = parsearg_upgrade(opt);
+				/* handle -Si -Sg etc if -S is the only trans op */
+				result = parsearg_sync_only(opt);
 				break;
 			case PM_OP_FILES:
 				result = parsearg_files(opt);
@@ -1016,6 +1076,13 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 			continue;
 		}
 
+		if(config->op & PM_OP_TRANS) {
+			result = parsearg_trans(opt);
+		}
+		if(result == 0) {
+			continue;
+		}
+
 		/* fall back to global options */
 		result = parsearg_global(opt);
 		if(result != 0) {
@@ -1032,7 +1099,7 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 
 	while(optind < argc) {
 		/* add the target to our target array */
-		pm_targets = alpm_list_add(pm_targets, strdup(argv[optind]));
+		add_target(strdup(argv[optind]));
 		optind++;
 	}
 
@@ -1044,7 +1111,7 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 			/* no conflicting options */
 			break;
 		case PM_OP_SYNC:
-			checkargs_sync();
+			checkargs_sync_only();
 			break;
 		case PM_OP_QUERY:
 			checkargs_query();
@@ -1061,10 +1128,83 @@  static int parseargs(int argc, char *argv[])
 		default:
 			break;
 	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_TRANS) {
+		checkargs_trans();
+	}
 
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void parse_stdin(alpm_list_t **targets)
+{
+	if(!isatty(fileno(stdin))) {
+		int target_found = 0;
+		char *vdata, *line = NULL;
+		size_t line_size = 0;
+		ssize_t nread;
+
+		/* remove the '-' from the list */
+		*targets = alpm_list_remove_str(*targets, "-", &vdata);
+		free(vdata);
+
+		while((nread = getline(&line, &line_size, stdin)) != -1) {
+			if(line[nread - 1] == '\n') {
+				/* remove trailing newline */
+				line[nread - 1] = '\0';
+			}
+			if(line[0] == '\0') {
+				/* skip empty lines */
+				continue;
+			}
+			if(!alpm_list_append_strdup(targets, line)) {
+				break;
+			}
+			target_found = 1;
+		}
+		free(line);
+
+		if(ferror(stdin)) {
+			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR,
+					_("failed to read arguments from stdin: (%s)\n"), strerror(errno));
+			cleanup(EXIT_FAILURE);
+		}
+
+		if(!freopen(ctermid(NULL), "r", stdin)) {
+			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to reopen stdin for reading: (%s)\n"),
+					strerror(errno));
+		}
+
+		if(!target_found) {
+			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("argument '-' specified with empty stdin\n"));
+			cleanup(1);
+		}
+	} else {
+		/* do not read stdin from terminal */
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("argument '-' specified without input on stdin\n"));
+		cleanup(1);
+	}
+}
+
+
+static void parse_stdins(void)
+{
+	alpm_list_t **lists[4] = {&pm_targets.targets, &pm_targets.sync, &pm_targets.upgrade, &pm_targets.remove};
+	int replaced = 0;
+
+	for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
+		alpm_list_t **list = lists[i];
+		if(alpm_list_find_str(*list, "-")) {
+			if(replaced) {
+				pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("argument '-' can not be specified multiple times\n"));
+				cleanup(1);
+			}
+			parse_stdin(list);
+			replaced++;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+
 /** Print command line to logfile.
  * @param argc
  * @param argv
@@ -1138,54 +1278,7 @@  int main(int argc, char *argv[])
 	}
 
 	/* we support reading targets from stdin if a cmdline parameter is '-' */
-	if(alpm_list_find_str(pm_targets, "-")) {
-		if(!isatty(fileno(stdin))) {
-			int target_found = 0;
-			char *vdata, *line = NULL;
-			size_t line_size = 0;
-			ssize_t nread;
-
-			/* remove the '-' from the list */
-			pm_targets = alpm_list_remove_str(pm_targets, "-", &vdata);
-			free(vdata);
-
-			while((nread = getline(&line, &line_size, stdin)) != -1) {
-				if(line[nread - 1] == '\n') {
-					/* remove trailing newline */
-					line[nread - 1] = '\0';
-				}
-				if(line[0] == '\0') {
-					/* skip empty lines */
-					continue;
-				}
-				if(!alpm_list_append_strdup(&pm_targets, line)) {
-					break;
-				}
-				target_found = 1;
-			}
-			free(line);
-
-			if(ferror(stdin)) {
-				pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR,
-						_("failed to read arguments from stdin: (%s)\n"), strerror(errno));
-				cleanup(EXIT_FAILURE);
-			}
-
-			if(!freopen(ctermid(NULL), "r", stdin)) {
-				pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to reopen stdin for reading: (%s)\n"),
-						strerror(errno));
-			}
-
-			if(!target_found) {
-				pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("argument '-' specified with empty stdin\n"));
-				cleanup(1);
-			}
-		} else {
-			/* do not read stdin from terminal */
-			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("argument '-' specified without input on stdin\n"));
-			cleanup(1);
-		}
-	}
+	parse_stdins();
 
 	if(config->sysroot && (chroot(config->sysroot) != 0 || chdir("/") != 0)) {
 		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR,
@@ -1233,7 +1326,10 @@  int main(int argc, char *argv[])
 		printf("Lock File : %s\n", alpm_option_get_lockfile(config->handle));
 		printf("Log File  : %s\n", alpm_option_get_logfile(config->handle));
 		printf("GPG Dir   : %s\n", alpm_option_get_gpgdir(config->handle));
-		list_display("Targets   :", pm_targets, 0);
+		list_display("Targets   :", pm_targets.targets, 0);
+		list_display("Sync      :", pm_targets.sync, 0);
+		list_display("Upgrade   :", pm_targets.upgrade, 0);
+		list_display("Remove    :", pm_targets.remove, 0);
 	}
 
 	/* Log command line */
@@ -1242,31 +1338,26 @@  int main(int argc, char *argv[])
 	}
 
 	/* start the requested operation */
-	switch(config->op) {
-		case PM_OP_DATABASE:
-			ret = pacman_database(pm_targets);
-			break;
-		case PM_OP_REMOVE:
-			ret = pacman_remove(pm_targets);
-			break;
-		case PM_OP_UPGRADE:
-			ret = pacman_upgrade(pm_targets);
-			break;
-		case PM_OP_QUERY:
-			ret = pacman_query(pm_targets);
-			break;
-		case PM_OP_SYNC:
-			ret = pacman_sync(pm_targets);
-			break;
-		case PM_OP_DEPTEST:
-			ret = pacman_deptest(pm_targets);
-			break;
-		case PM_OP_FILES:
-			ret = pacman_files(pm_targets);
-			break;
-		default:
-			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("no operation specified (use -h for help)\n"));
-			ret = EXIT_FAILURE;
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_TRANS) {
+		ret = do_transaction(&pm_targets);
+	} else {
+		switch(config->op) {
+			case PM_OP_DATABASE:
+				ret = pacman_database(pm_targets.targets);
+				break;
+			case PM_OP_QUERY:
+				ret = pacman_query(pm_targets.targets);
+				break;
+			case PM_OP_DEPTEST:
+				ret = pacman_deptest(pm_targets.targets);
+				break;
+			case PM_OP_FILES:
+				ret = pacman_files(pm_targets.targets);
+				break;
+			default:
+				pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("no operation specified (use -h for help)\n"));
+				ret = EXIT_FAILURE;
+		}
 	}
 
 	cleanup(ret);
diff --git a/src/pacman/pacman.h b/src/pacman/pacman.h
index 2d5229ed..b5a1061a 100644
--- a/src/pacman/pacman.h
+++ b/src/pacman/pacman.h
@@ -22,6 +22,8 @@ 
 
 #include <alpm_list.h>
 
+#include "conf.h"
+
 #define PACMAN_CALLER_PREFIX "PACMAN"
 
 /* database.c */
@@ -32,12 +34,14 @@  int pacman_deptest(alpm_list_t *targets);
 int pacman_files(alpm_list_t *files);
 /* query.c */
 int pacman_query(alpm_list_t *targets);
-/* remove.c */
-int pacman_remove(alpm_list_t *targets);
 /* sync.c */
 int pacman_sync(alpm_list_t *targets);
-int sync_prepare_execute(void);
+/* remove.c */
+int load_remove(alpm_list_t *targets);
 /* upgrade.c */
-int pacman_upgrade(alpm_list_t *targets);
+int load_upgrade(alpm_list_t *targets);
+/* trans.c */
+int do_transaction(targets_t *targets);
+
 
 #endif /* PM_PACMAN_H */
diff --git a/src/pacman/remove.c b/src/pacman/remove.c
index 98f8bcda..ff11b6e6 100644
--- a/src/pacman/remove.c
+++ b/src/pacman/remove.c
@@ -18,7 +18,6 @@ 
  *  along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
  */
 
-#include <fnmatch.h>
 #include <stdlib.h>
 #include <stdio.h>
 
@@ -30,11 +29,6 @@ 
 #include "util.h"
 #include "conf.h"
 
-static int fnmatch_cmp(const void *pattern, const void *string)
-{
-	return fnmatch(pattern, string, 0);
-}
-
 static int remove_target(const char *target)
 {
 	alpm_pkg_t *pkg;
@@ -69,28 +63,16 @@  static int remove_target(const char *target)
 	return 0;
 }
 
-/**
- * @brief Remove a specified list of packages.
- *
- * @param targets a list of packages (as strings) to remove from the system
- *
- * @return 0 on success, 1 on failure
- */
-int pacman_remove(alpm_list_t *targets)
+int load_remove(alpm_list_t *targets)
 {
 	int retval = 0;
-	alpm_list_t *i, *data = NULL;
+	alpm_list_t *i;
 
 	if(targets == NULL) {
 		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("no targets specified (use -h for help)\n"));
 		return 1;
 	}
 
-	/* Step 0: create a new transaction */
-	if(trans_init(config->flags, 0) == -1) {
-		return 1;
-	}
-
 	/* Step 1: add targets to the created transaction */
 	for(i = targets; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
 		char *target = i->data;
@@ -102,81 +84,6 @@  int pacman_remove(alpm_list_t *targets)
 		}
 	}
 
-	if(retval == 1) {
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	/* Step 2: prepare the transaction based on its type, targets and flags */
-	if(alpm_trans_prepare(config->handle, &data) == -1) {
-		alpm_errno_t err = alpm_errno(config->handle);
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to prepare transaction (%s)\n"),
-		        alpm_strerror(err));
-		switch(err) {
-			case ALPM_ERR_UNSATISFIED_DEPS:
-				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-					alpm_depmissing_t *miss = i->data;
-					char *depstring = alpm_dep_compute_string(miss->depend);
-					colon_printf(_("removing %s breaks dependency '%s' required by %s\n"),
-							miss->causingpkg, depstring, miss->target);
-					free(depstring);
-					alpm_depmissing_free(miss);
-				}
-				break;
-			default:
-				break;
-		}
-		alpm_list_free(data);
-		retval = 1;
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	/* Search for holdpkg in target list */
-	int holdpkg = 0;
-	for(i = alpm_trans_get_remove(config->handle); i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-		alpm_pkg_t *pkg = i->data;
-		if(alpm_list_find(config->holdpkg, alpm_pkg_get_name(pkg), fnmatch_cmp)) {
-			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_WARNING, _("%s is designated as a HoldPkg.\n"),
-							alpm_pkg_get_name(pkg));
-			holdpkg = 1;
-		}
-	}
-	if(holdpkg && (noyes(_("HoldPkg was found in target list. Do you want to continue?")) == 0)) {
-		retval = 1;
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	/* Step 3: actually perform the removal */
-	alpm_list_t *pkglist = alpm_trans_get_remove(config->handle);
-	if(pkglist == NULL) {
-		printf(_(" there is nothing to do\n"));
-		goto cleanup; /* we are done */
-	}
-
-	if(config->print) {
-		print_packages(pkglist);
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	/* print targets and ask user confirmation */
-	display_targets();
-	printf("\n");
-	if(yesno(_("Do you want to remove these packages?")) == 0) {
-		retval = 1;
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	if(alpm_trans_commit(config->handle, &data) == -1) {
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to commit transaction (%s)\n"),
-		        alpm_strerror(alpm_errno(config->handle)));
-		retval = 1;
-	}
-
-	FREELIST(data);
-
-	/* Step 4: release transaction resources */
-cleanup:
-	if(trans_release() == -1) {
-		retval = 1;
-	}
 	return retval;
 }
+
diff --git a/src/pacman/sync.c b/src/pacman/sync.c
index 1f2c8cba..b72fdec3 100644
--- a/src/pacman/sync.c
+++ b/src/pacman/sync.c
@@ -35,7 +35,6 @@ 
 #include "pacman.h"
 #include "util.h"
 #include "package.h"
-#include "callback.h"
 #include "conf.h"
 
 static int unlink_verbose(const char *pathname, int ignore_missing)
@@ -510,376 +509,6 @@  static int sync_list(alpm_list_t *syncs, alpm_list_t *targets)
 	return ret;
 }
 
-static alpm_db_t *get_db(const char *dbname)
-{
-	alpm_list_t *i;
-	for(i = alpm_get_syncdbs(config->handle); i; i = i->next) {
-		alpm_db_t *db = i->data;
-		if(strcmp(alpm_db_get_name(db), dbname) == 0) {
-			return db;
-		}
-	}
-	return NULL;
-}
-
-static int process_pkg(alpm_pkg_t *pkg)
-{
-	int ret = alpm_add_pkg(config->handle, pkg);
-
-	if(ret == -1) {
-		alpm_errno_t err = alpm_errno(config->handle);
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, "'%s': %s\n", alpm_pkg_get_name(pkg), alpm_strerror(err));
-		return 1;
-	}
-	config->explicit_adds = alpm_list_add(config->explicit_adds, pkg);
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int group_exists(alpm_list_t *dbs, const char *name)
-{
-	alpm_list_t *i;
-	for(i = dbs; i; i = i->next) {
-		alpm_db_t *db = i->data;
-
-		if(alpm_db_get_group(db, name)) {
-			return 1;
-		}
-	}
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int process_group(alpm_list_t *dbs, const char *group, int error)
-{
-	int ret = 0;
-	alpm_list_t *i;
-	alpm_list_t *pkgs = alpm_find_group_pkgs(dbs, group);
-	int count = alpm_list_count(pkgs);
-
-	if(!count) {
-		if(group_exists(dbs, group)) {
-			return 0;
-		}
-
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("target not found: %s\n"), group);
-		return 1;
-	}
-
-	if(error) {
-		/* we already know another target errored. there is no reason to prompt the
-		 * user here; we already validated the group name so just move on since we
-		 * won't actually be installing anything anyway. */
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	if(config->print == 0) {
-		char *array = malloc(count);
-		int n = 0;
-		const colstr_t *colstr = &config->colstr;
-		colon_printf(_n("There is %d member in group %s%s%s:\n",
-				"There are %d members in group %s%s%s:\n", count),
-				count, colstr->groups, group, colstr->title);
-		select_display(pkgs);
-		if(!array) {
-			ret = 1;
-			goto cleanup;
-		}
-		if(multiselect_question(array, count)) {
-			ret = 1;
-			free(array);
-			goto cleanup;
-		}
-		for(i = pkgs, n = 0; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-			alpm_pkg_t *pkg = i->data;
-
-			if(array[n++] == 0) {
-				continue;
-			}
-
-			if(process_pkg(pkg) == 1) {
-				ret = 1;
-				free(array);
-				goto cleanup;
-			}
-		}
-		free(array);
-	} else {
-		for(i = pkgs; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-			alpm_pkg_t *pkg = i->data;
-
-			if(process_pkg(pkg) == 1) {
-				ret = 1;
-				goto cleanup;
-			}
-		}
-	}
-
-cleanup:
-	alpm_list_free(pkgs);
-	return ret;
-}
-
-static int process_targname(alpm_list_t *dblist, const char *targname,
-		int error)
-{
-	alpm_pkg_t *pkg = alpm_find_dbs_satisfier(config->handle, dblist, targname);
-
-	/* skip ignored packages when user says no */
-	if(alpm_errno(config->handle) == ALPM_ERR_PKG_IGNORED) {
-			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_WARNING, _("skipping target: %s\n"), targname);
-			return 0;
-	}
-
-	if(pkg) {
-		return process_pkg(pkg);
-	}
-	/* fallback on group */
-	return process_group(dblist, targname, error);
-}
-
-static int process_target(const char *target, int error)
-{
-	/* process targets */
-	char *targstring = strdup(target);
-	char *targname = strchr(targstring, '/');
-	int ret = 0;
-	alpm_list_t *dblist;
-
-	if(targname && targname != targstring) {
-		alpm_db_t *db;
-		const char *dbname;
-		int usage;
-
-		*targname = '\0';
-		targname++;
-		dbname = targstring;
-		db = get_db(dbname);
-		if(!db) {
-			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("database not found: %s\n"),
-					dbname);
-			ret = 1;
-			goto cleanup;
-		}
-
-		/* explicitly mark this repo as valid for installs since
-		 * a repo name was given with the target */
-		alpm_db_get_usage(db, &usage);
-		alpm_db_set_usage(db, usage|ALPM_DB_USAGE_INSTALL);
-
-		dblist = alpm_list_add(NULL, db);
-		ret = process_targname(dblist, targname, error);
-		alpm_list_free(dblist);
-
-		/* restore old usage so we don't possibly disturb later
-		 * targets */
-		alpm_db_set_usage(db, usage);
-	} else {
-		targname = targstring;
-		dblist = alpm_get_syncdbs(config->handle);
-		ret = process_targname(dblist, targname, error);
-	}
-
-cleanup:
-	free(targstring);
-	if(ret && access(target, R_OK) == 0) {
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_WARNING,
-				_("'%s' is a file, did you mean %s instead of %s?\n"),
-				target, "-U/--upgrade", "-S/--sync");
-	}
-	return ret;
-}
-
-static int sync_trans(alpm_list_t *targets)
-{
-	int retval = 0;
-	alpm_list_t *i;
-
-	/* Step 1: create a new transaction... */
-	if(trans_init(config->flags, 1) == -1) {
-		return 1;
-	}
-
-	/* process targets */
-	for(i = targets; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-		const char *targ = i->data;
-		if(process_target(targ, retval) == 1) {
-			retval = 1;
-		}
-	}
-
-	if(retval) {
-		trans_release();
-		return retval;
-	}
-
-	if(config->op_s_upgrade) {
-		if(!config->print) {
-			colon_printf(_("Starting full system upgrade...\n"));
-			alpm_logaction(config->handle, PACMAN_CALLER_PREFIX,
-					"starting full system upgrade\n");
-		}
-		if(alpm_sync_sysupgrade(config->handle, config->op_s_upgrade >= 2) == -1) {
-			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, "%s\n", alpm_strerror(alpm_errno(config->handle)));
-			trans_release();
-			return 1;
-		}
-	}
-
-	return sync_prepare_execute();
-}
-
-static void print_broken_dep(alpm_depmissing_t *miss)
-{
-	char *depstring = alpm_dep_compute_string(miss->depend);
-	alpm_list_t *trans_add = alpm_trans_get_add(config->handle);
-	alpm_pkg_t *pkg;
-	if(miss->causingpkg == NULL) {
-		/* package being installed/upgraded has unresolved dependency */
-		colon_printf(_("unable to satisfy dependency '%s' required by %s\n"),
-				depstring, miss->target);
-	} else if((pkg = alpm_pkg_find(trans_add, miss->causingpkg))) {
-		/* upgrading a package breaks a local dependency */
-		colon_printf(_("installing %s (%s) breaks dependency '%s' required by %s\n"),
-				miss->causingpkg, alpm_pkg_get_version(pkg), depstring, miss->target);
-	} else {
-		/* removing a package breaks a local dependency */
-		colon_printf(_("removing %s breaks dependency '%s' required by %s\n"),
-				miss->causingpkg, depstring, miss->target);
-	}
-	free(depstring);
-}
-
-int sync_prepare_execute(void)
-{
-	alpm_list_t *i, *packages, *data = NULL;
-	int retval = 0;
-
-	/* Step 2: "compute" the transaction based on targets and flags */
-	if(alpm_trans_prepare(config->handle, &data) == -1) {
-		alpm_errno_t err = alpm_errno(config->handle);
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to prepare transaction (%s)\n"),
-		        alpm_strerror(err));
-		switch(err) {
-			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID_ARCH:
-				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-					char *pkg = i->data;
-					colon_printf(_("package %s does not have a valid architecture\n"), pkg);
-					free(pkg);
-				}
-				break;
-			case ALPM_ERR_UNSATISFIED_DEPS:
-				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-					print_broken_dep(i->data);
-					alpm_depmissing_free(i->data);
-				}
-				break;
-			case ALPM_ERR_CONFLICTING_DEPS:
-				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-					alpm_conflict_t *conflict = i->data;
-					/* only print reason if it contains new information */
-					if(conflict->reason->mod == ALPM_DEP_MOD_ANY) {
-						colon_printf(_("%s and %s are in conflict\n"),
-								conflict->package1, conflict->package2);
-					} else {
-						char *reason = alpm_dep_compute_string(conflict->reason);
-						colon_printf(_("%s and %s are in conflict (%s)\n"),
-								conflict->package1, conflict->package2, reason);
-						free(reason);
-					}
-					alpm_conflict_free(conflict);
-				}
-				break;
-			default:
-				break;
-		}
-		retval = 1;
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	packages = alpm_trans_get_add(config->handle);
-	if(packages == NULL) {
-		/* nothing to do: just exit without complaining */
-		if(!config->print) {
-			printf(_(" there is nothing to do\n"));
-		}
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	/* Step 3: actually perform the operation */
-	if(config->print) {
-		print_packages(packages);
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	display_targets();
-	printf("\n");
-
-	int confirm;
-	if(config->op_s_downloadonly) {
-		confirm = yesno(_("Proceed with download?"));
-	} else {
-		confirm = yesno(_("Proceed with installation?"));
-	}
-	if(!confirm) {
-		retval = 1;
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	multibar_move_completed_up(true);
-	if(alpm_trans_commit(config->handle, &data) == -1) {
-		alpm_errno_t err = alpm_errno(config->handle);
-		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to commit transaction (%s)\n"),
-		        alpm_strerror(err));
-		switch(err) {
-			case ALPM_ERR_FILE_CONFLICTS:
-				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-					alpm_fileconflict_t *conflict = i->data;
-					switch(conflict->type) {
-						case ALPM_FILECONFLICT_TARGET:
-							fprintf(stderr, _("%s exists in both '%s' and '%s'\n"),
-									conflict->file, conflict->target, conflict->ctarget);
-							break;
-						case ALPM_FILECONFLICT_FILESYSTEM:
-							if(conflict->ctarget[0]) {
-								fprintf(stderr, _("%s: %s exists in filesystem (owned by %s)\n"),
-										conflict->target, conflict->file, conflict->ctarget);
-							} else {
-								fprintf(stderr, _("%s: %s exists in filesystem\n"),
-										conflict->target, conflict->file);
-							}
-							break;
-					}
-					alpm_fileconflict_free(conflict);
-				}
-				break;
-			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID:
-			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID_CHECKSUM:
-			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID_SIG:
-				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
-					char *filename = i->data;
-					fprintf(stderr, _("%s is invalid or corrupted\n"), filename);
-					free(filename);
-				}
-				break;
-			default:
-				break;
-		}
-		/* TODO: stderr? */
-		printf(_("Errors occurred, no packages were upgraded.\n"));
-		retval = 1;
-		goto cleanup;
-	}
-
-	/* Step 4: release transaction resources */
-cleanup:
-	alpm_list_free(data);
-	if(trans_release() == -1) {
-		retval = 1;
-	}
-
-	return retval;
-}
-
 int pacman_sync(alpm_list_t *targets)
 {
 	alpm_list_t *sync_dbs = NULL;
@@ -902,26 +531,8 @@  int pacman_sync(alpm_list_t *targets)
 		return ret;
 	}
 
-	if(check_syncdbs(1, 0)) {
-		return 1;
-	}
-
 	sync_dbs = alpm_get_syncdbs(config->handle);
 
-	if(config->op_s_sync) {
-		/* grab a fresh package list */
-		colon_printf(_("Synchronizing package databases...\n"));
-		alpm_logaction(config->handle, PACMAN_CALLER_PREFIX,
-				"synchronizing package lists\n");
-		if(!sync_syncdbs(config->op_s_sync, sync_dbs)) {
-			return 1;
-		}
-	}
-
-	if(check_syncdbs(1, 1)) {
-		return 1;
-	}
-
 	/* search for a package */
 	if(config->op_s_search) {
 		return sync_search(sync_dbs, targets);
@@ -943,17 +554,9 @@  int pacman_sync(alpm_list_t *targets)
 	}
 
 	if(targets == NULL) {
-		if(config->op_s_upgrade) {
-			/* proceed */
-		} else if(config->op_s_sync) {
-			return 0;
-		} else {
-			/* don't proceed here unless we have an operation that doesn't require a
-			 * target list */
-			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("no targets specified (use -h for help)\n"));
-			return 1;
-		}
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("no targets specified (use -h for help)\n"));
+		return 1;
 	}
 
-	return sync_trans(targets);
+	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/src/pacman/trans.c b/src/pacman/trans.c
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..62c7fb4d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/pacman/trans.c
@@ -0,0 +1,478 @@ 
+/*
+ *  trans.c
+ *
+ *  Copyright (c) 2006-2021 Pacman Development Team <pacman-dev@archlinux.org>
+ *  Copyright (c) 2002-2006 by Judd Vinet <jvinet@zeroflux.org>
+ *
+ *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ *  (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
+ *  GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ *  along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+ */
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <fnmatch.h>
+
+#include <alpm.h>
+#include <alpm_list.h>
+
+/* pacman */
+#include "pacman.h"
+#include "callback.h"
+#include "conf.h"
+#include "util.h"
+
+static int fnmatch_cmp(const void *pattern, const void *string)
+{
+	return fnmatch(pattern, string, 0);
+}
+
+static void print_broken_dep(alpm_depmissing_t *miss)
+{
+	char *depstring = alpm_dep_compute_string(miss->depend);
+	alpm_list_t *trans_add = alpm_trans_get_add(config->handle);
+	alpm_pkg_t *pkg;
+	if(miss->causingpkg == NULL) {
+		/* package being installed/upgraded has unresolved dependency */
+		colon_printf(_("unable to satisfy dependency '%s' required by %s\n"),
+				depstring, miss->target);
+	} else if((pkg = alpm_pkg_find(trans_add, miss->causingpkg))) {
+		/* upgrading a package breaks a local dependency */
+		colon_printf(_("installing %s (%s) breaks dependency '%s' required by %s\n"),
+				miss->causingpkg, alpm_pkg_get_version(pkg), depstring, miss->target);
+	} else {
+		/* removing a package breaks a local dependency */
+		colon_printf(_("removing %s breaks dependency '%s' required by %s\n"),
+				miss->causingpkg, depstring, miss->target);
+	}
+	free(depstring);
+}
+
+static int sync_prepare_execute(void)
+{
+	alpm_list_t *i, *packages, *remove_packages, *data = NULL;
+	int retval = 0;
+
+	/* Step 2: "compute" the transaction based on targets and flags */
+	if(alpm_trans_prepare(config->handle, &data) == -1) {
+		alpm_errno_t err = alpm_errno(config->handle);
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to prepare transaction (%s)\n"),
+		        alpm_strerror(err));
+		switch(err) {
+			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID_ARCH:
+				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+					char *pkg = i->data;
+					colon_printf(_("package %s does not have a valid architecture\n"), pkg);
+					free(pkg);
+				}
+				break;
+			case ALPM_ERR_UNSATISFIED_DEPS:
+				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+					print_broken_dep(i->data);
+					alpm_depmissing_free(i->data);
+				}
+				break;
+			case ALPM_ERR_CONFLICTING_DEPS:
+				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+					alpm_conflict_t *conflict = i->data;
+					/* only print reason if it contains new information */
+					if(conflict->reason->mod == ALPM_DEP_MOD_ANY) {
+						colon_printf(_("%s and %s are in conflict\n"),
+								conflict->package1, conflict->package2);
+					} else {
+						char *reason = alpm_dep_compute_string(conflict->reason);
+						colon_printf(_("%s and %s are in conflict (%s)\n"),
+								conflict->package1, conflict->package2, reason);
+						free(reason);
+					}
+					alpm_conflict_free(conflict);
+				}
+				break;
+			default:
+				break;
+		}
+		retval = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	packages = alpm_trans_get_add(config->handle);
+	remove_packages = alpm_trans_get_remove(config->handle);
+
+	if(packages == NULL && remove_packages == NULL) {
+		/* nothing to do: just exit without complaining */
+		if(!config->print) {
+			printf(_(" there is nothing to do\n"));
+		}
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+
+	/* Search for holdpkg in target list */
+	int holdpkg = 0;
+	for(i = remove_packages; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+		alpm_pkg_t *pkg = i->data;
+		if(alpm_list_find(config->holdpkg, alpm_pkg_get_name(pkg), fnmatch_cmp)) {
+			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_WARNING, _("%s is designated as a HoldPkg.\n"),
+							alpm_pkg_get_name(pkg));
+			holdpkg = 1;
+		}
+	}
+	if(holdpkg && (noyes(_("HoldPkg was found in target list. Do you want to continue?")) == 0)) {
+		retval = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	/* Step 3: actually perform the operation */
+	if(config->print) {
+		print_packages(packages);
+		print_packages(remove_packages);
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	display_targets();
+	printf("\n");
+
+	int confirm;
+	if(config->op_s_downloadonly) {
+		confirm = yesno(_("Proceed with download?"));
+	} else {
+		confirm = yesno(_("Proceed with installation?"));
+	}
+	if(!confirm) {
+		retval = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	multibar_move_completed_up(true);
+	if(alpm_trans_commit(config->handle, &data) == -1) {
+		alpm_errno_t err = alpm_errno(config->handle);
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("failed to commit transaction (%s)\n"),
+		        alpm_strerror(err));
+		switch(err) {
+			case ALPM_ERR_FILE_CONFLICTS:
+				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+					alpm_fileconflict_t *conflict = i->data;
+					switch(conflict->type) {
+						case ALPM_FILECONFLICT_TARGET:
+							fprintf(stderr, _("%s exists in both '%s' and '%s'\n"),
+									conflict->file, conflict->target, conflict->ctarget);
+							break;
+						case ALPM_FILECONFLICT_FILESYSTEM:
+							if(conflict->ctarget[0]) {
+								fprintf(stderr, _("%s: %s exists in filesystem (owned by %s)\n"),
+										conflict->target, conflict->file, conflict->ctarget);
+							} else {
+								fprintf(stderr, _("%s: %s exists in filesystem\n"),
+										conflict->target, conflict->file);
+							}
+							break;
+					}
+					alpm_fileconflict_free(conflict);
+				}
+				break;
+			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID:
+			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID_CHECKSUM:
+			case ALPM_ERR_PKG_INVALID_SIG:
+				for(i = data; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+					char *filename = i->data;
+					fprintf(stderr, _("%s is invalid or corrupted\n"), filename);
+					free(filename);
+				}
+				break;
+			default:
+				break;
+		}
+		/* TODO: stderr? */
+		printf(_("Errors occurred, no packages were upgraded.\n"));
+		retval = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	/* Step 4: release transaction resources */
+cleanup:
+	alpm_list_free(data);
+	if(trans_release() == -1) {
+		retval = 1;
+	}
+
+	return retval;
+}
+
+static int group_exists(alpm_list_t *dbs, const char *name)
+{
+	alpm_list_t *i;
+	for(i = dbs; i; i = i->next) {
+		alpm_db_t *db = i->data;
+
+		if(alpm_db_get_group(db, name)) {
+			return 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static alpm_db_t *get_db(const char *dbname)
+{
+	alpm_list_t *i;
+	for(i = alpm_get_syncdbs(config->handle); i; i = i->next) {
+		alpm_db_t *db = i->data;
+		if(strcmp(alpm_db_get_name(db), dbname) == 0) {
+			return db;
+		}
+	}
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+static int process_pkg(alpm_pkg_t *pkg)
+{
+	int ret = alpm_add_pkg(config->handle, pkg);
+
+	if(ret == -1) {
+		alpm_errno_t err = alpm_errno(config->handle);
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, "'%s': %s\n", alpm_pkg_get_name(pkg), alpm_strerror(err));
+		return 1;
+	}
+	config->explicit_adds = alpm_list_add(config->explicit_adds, pkg);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int process_group(alpm_list_t *dbs, const char *group, int error)
+{
+	int ret = 0;
+	alpm_list_t *i;
+	alpm_list_t *pkgs = alpm_find_group_pkgs(dbs, group);
+	int count = alpm_list_count(pkgs);
+
+	if(!count) {
+		if(group_exists(dbs, group)) {
+			return 0;
+		}
+
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("target not found: %s\n"), group);
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	if(error) {
+		/* we already know another target errored. there is no reason to prompt the
+		 * user here; we already validated the group name so just move on since we
+		 * won't actually be installing anything anyway. */
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	if(config->print == 0) {
+		char *array = malloc(count);
+		int n = 0;
+		const colstr_t *colstr = &config->colstr;
+		colon_printf(_n("There is %d member in group %s%s%s:\n",
+				"There are %d members in group %s%s%s:\n", count),
+				count, colstr->groups, group, colstr->title);
+		select_display(pkgs);
+		if(!array) {
+			ret = 1;
+			goto cleanup;
+		}
+		if(multiselect_question(array, count)) {
+			ret = 1;
+			free(array);
+			goto cleanup;
+		}
+		for(i = pkgs, n = 0; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+			alpm_pkg_t *pkg = i->data;
+
+			if(array[n++] == 0) {
+				continue;
+			}
+
+			if(process_pkg(pkg) == 1) {
+				ret = 1;
+				free(array);
+				goto cleanup;
+			}
+		}
+		free(array);
+	} else {
+		for(i = pkgs; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+			alpm_pkg_t *pkg = i->data;
+
+			if(process_pkg(pkg) == 1) {
+				ret = 1;
+				goto cleanup;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+cleanup:
+	alpm_list_free(pkgs);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static int process_targname(alpm_list_t *dblist, const char *targname,
+		int error)
+{
+	alpm_pkg_t *pkg = alpm_find_dbs_satisfier(config->handle, dblist, targname);
+
+	/* skip ignored packages when user says no */
+	if(alpm_errno(config->handle) == ALPM_ERR_PKG_IGNORED) {
+			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_WARNING, _("skipping target: %s\n"), targname);
+			return 0;
+	}
+
+	if(pkg) {
+		return process_pkg(pkg);
+	}
+	/* fallback on group */
+	return process_group(dblist, targname, error);
+}
+
+static int process_target(const char *target, int error)
+{
+	/* process targets */
+	char *targstring = strdup(target);
+	char *targname = strchr(targstring, '/');
+	int ret = 0;
+	alpm_list_t *dblist;
+
+	if(targname && targname != targstring) {
+		alpm_db_t *db;
+		const char *dbname;
+		int usage;
+
+		*targname = '\0';
+		targname++;
+		dbname = targstring;
+		db = get_db(dbname);
+		if(!db) {
+			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("database not found: %s\n"),
+					dbname);
+			ret = 1;
+			goto cleanup;
+		}
+
+		/* explicitly mark this repo as valid for installs since
+		 * a repo name was given with the target */
+		alpm_db_get_usage(db, &usage);
+		alpm_db_set_usage(db, usage|ALPM_DB_USAGE_INSTALL);
+
+		dblist = alpm_list_add(NULL, db);
+		ret = process_targname(dblist, targname, error);
+		alpm_list_free(dblist);
+
+		/* restore old usage so we don't possibly disturb later
+		 * targets */
+		alpm_db_set_usage(db, usage);
+	} else {
+		targname = targstring;
+		dblist = alpm_get_syncdbs(config->handle);
+		ret = process_targname(dblist, targname, error);
+	}
+
+cleanup:
+	free(targstring);
+	if(ret && access(target, R_OK) == 0) {
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_WARNING,
+				_("'%s' is a file, did you mean %s instead of %s?\n"),
+				target, "-U/--upgrade", "-S/--sync");
+	}
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static int load_sync(alpm_list_t *targets)
+{
+	int retval = 0;
+	alpm_list_t *i;
+
+	if(targets == NULL && !config->op_s_upgrade && !config->op_s_sync) {
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("no targets specified (use -h for help)\n"));
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	/* process targets */
+	for(i = targets; i; i = alpm_list_next(i)) {
+		const char *targ = i->data;
+		if(process_target(targ, retval) == 1) {
+			retval = 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return retval;
+}
+
+int do_transaction(targets_t *targets) {
+	int need_repos = (config->op & PM_OP_SYNC);
+	alpm_list_t *sync_dbs;
+
+	if(targets->targets != NULL) {
+		pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, _("targets must come after operation\n"));
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	if(check_syncdbs(need_repos, 0)) {
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	sync_dbs = alpm_get_syncdbs(config->handle);
+
+	if(config->op_s_sync) {
+		/* grab a fresh package list */
+		colon_printf(_("Synchronizing package databases...\n"));
+		alpm_logaction(config->handle, PACMAN_CALLER_PREFIX,
+				"synchronizing package lists\n");
+		if(!sync_syncdbs(config->op_s_sync, sync_dbs)) {
+			return 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	if(check_syncdbs(need_repos, 1)) {
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	if(config->op_s_clean || config->op_s_search || config->op_s_info
+			|| config->op_q_list || config->group) {
+		return pacman_sync(targets->sync);
+	}
+
+	/* Step 1: create a new transaction... */
+	if(trans_init(config->flags, 1) == -1) {
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_SYNC && load_sync(targets->sync)) {
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_REMOVE && load_remove(targets->remove)) {
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_UPGRADE && load_upgrade(targets->upgrade)) {
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	if(config->op_s_upgrade) {
+		if(!config->print) {
+			colon_printf(_("Starting full system upgrade...\n"));
+			alpm_logaction(config->handle, PACMAN_CALLER_PREFIX,
+					"starting full system upgrade\n");
+		}
+		if(alpm_sync_sysupgrade(config->handle, config->op_s_upgrade >= 2) == -1) {
+			pm_printf(ALPM_LOG_ERROR, "%s\n", alpm_strerror(alpm_errno(config->handle)));
+			trans_release();
+			return 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return sync_prepare_execute();
+
+cleanup:
+	trans_release();
+	return 1;
+}
diff --git a/src/pacman/upgrade.c b/src/pacman/upgrade.c
index 0691856f..b0fa7b1d 100644
--- a/src/pacman/upgrade.c
+++ b/src/pacman/upgrade.c
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@  static int load_packages(alpm_list_t *targets, int siglevel)
  *
  * @return 0 on success, 1 on failure
  */
-int pacman_upgrade(alpm_list_t *targets)
+int load_upgrade(alpm_list_t *targets)
 {
 	int retval = 0;
 	alpm_list_t *remote_targets = NULL, *fetched_files = NULL;
@@ -88,38 +88,16 @@  int pacman_upgrade(alpm_list_t *targets)
 
 	if(remote_targets) {
 		retval = alpm_fetch_pkgurl(config->handle, remote_targets, &fetched_files);
-		if(retval) {
-			goto fail_free;
-		}
-	}
-
-	/* Step 1: create a new transaction */
-	if(trans_init(config->flags, 1) == -1) {
-		retval = 1;
-		goto fail_free;
 	}
 
 	printf(_("loading packages...\n"));
 	retval |= load_packages(local_targets, alpm_option_get_local_file_siglevel(config->handle));
 	retval |= load_packages(fetched_files, alpm_option_get_remote_file_siglevel(config->handle));
 
-	if(retval) {
-		goto fail_release;
-	}
-
-	alpm_list_free(remote_targets);
-	alpm_list_free(local_targets);
-	FREELIST(fetched_files);
-
-	/* now that targets are resolved, we can hand it all off to the sync code */
-	return sync_prepare_execute();
-
-fail_release:
-	trans_release();
-fail_free:
 	alpm_list_free(remote_targets);
 	alpm_list_free(local_targets);
 	FREELIST(fetched_files);
 
 	return retval;
 }
+
diff --git a/src/pacman/util.c b/src/pacman/util.c
index 53833d6f..f1b8fc40 100644
--- a/src/pacman/util.c
+++ b/src/pacman/util.c
@@ -106,16 +106,17 @@  int needs_root(void)
 	if(config->sysroot) {
 		return 1;
 	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_SYNC) {
+		return (config->op_s_clean || config->op_s_sync ||
+				(!config->group && !config->op_s_info && !config->op_q_list &&
+				 !config->op_s_search && !config->print));
+	}
+	if(config->op & PM_OP_TRANS) {
+		return !config->print;
+	}
 	switch(config->op) {
 		case PM_OP_DATABASE:
 			return !config->op_q_check;
-		case PM_OP_UPGRADE:
-		case PM_OP_REMOVE:
-			return !config->print;
-		case PM_OP_SYNC:
-			return (config->op_s_clean || config->op_s_sync ||
-					(!config->group && !config->op_s_info && !config->op_q_list &&
-					 !config->op_s_search && !config->print));
 		case PM_OP_FILES:
 			return config->op_s_sync;
 		default:
diff --git a/test/pacman/tests/remove049.py b/test/pacman/tests/remove049.py
index a0336295..a147847a 100644
--- a/test/pacman/tests/remove049.py
+++ b/test/pacman/tests/remove049.py
@@ -10,9 +10,9 @@ 
 lp3.depends = [ "pkg1" ]
 self.addpkg2db("local", lp3)
 
-self.args = "-Ru pkg1 pkg2"
+self.args = "-R --unneeded pkg1 pkg2"
 
 self.addrule("PACMAN_RETCODE=0")
 self.addrule("PKG_EXIST=pkg1")
 self.addrule("!PKG_EXIST=pkg2")
-self.addrule("PKG_EXIST=pkg3")
\ No newline at end of file
+self.addrule("PKG_EXIST=pkg3")